Frequently Asked Questions

What are Geographic Response Plans?
Geographic Response Plans (GRPs) are oil spill response plans tailored to protect a specific sensitive area from impacts following a spill. These response plans are map-based strategies that can save time during the critical first few hours of an oil spill response. They show responders where sensitive areas are located and where to place oil spill protection resources.


GRPs have been developed in several regions of the U.S., including Alaska, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Oregon, and Washington State. In nearly all areas, the GRP (sometimes referred to as GRS, geographic response strategies) represent the consensus product of a planning effort involving state and federal oil spill response agencies, natural resource trustees, spill responders, industry, stakeholders, and the public.


Nuka Research has been the lead contractor for geographic response plan (GRP) and geographic response strategy (GRS) development in Alaska since 1998 and Massachusetts since 2009.


Why develop GRPs?
The initial phase of an oil spill response can be quite hectic. Multiple objectives must be met using available resources and responders. At the local level, residents and emergency responders are often the first ones to show up at the shoreline, eager to act before the spilled oil reaches sensitive shoreline environments.

The process of developing GRPs brings together diverse groups in a non-emergency setting to discuss environmental sensitivities, protection priorities, response strategies, and response constraints. GRP development fosters local buy-in and creates realistic expectations for protecting sensitive areas from oil spill impacts.

GRP use standard terminology and tactics presented in a field-oriented format so that responders can easily recognize and implement the strategies. Because of this standardization, GRPs are an important tool for training and preparedness as well as response.


How are GRPs used?
GRPs are tactical plans that provide a set of “directions” to initial responders for how to protect environmentally sensitive areas and resources from oil impacts. GRP sites are selected based on several criteria, and response strategies are developed for those sites in advance of an oil spill. When local responders arrive at the scene, they now have an implementation to deploy pre-staged equipment at sensitive sites.

The GRPs developed for coastal Massachusetts by MassDEP and Nuka Research have been incorporated into the appropriate Area Contingency Plans for oil spill and hazardous materials response. While these plans are NOT a mandate for site protection or response, they are available to government and private industry oil spill responders if needed.


How are GRP developed?
A collaborative Work Group will oversee inland river GRP development. The group will begin by selecting candidate sites along each river system. Information will be compiled about candidate sites through sensitivity maps, local knowledge, site surveys, trustee agency input, and public comment.

A Tactics sub-group will be responsible for identifying a set of “core” oil spill response tactics appropriate for each river system/shoreline based on the spill response resources available to first responders, the resources at risk, and the coastal geomorphology. These core tactics will then be applied to each GRP site in order to meet the particular protection goals.

GRPs are drafted, reviewed, and should ideally be field-verified. Field verification and testing, if conducted, may result in modifications to the GRP. GRPs can be tested during scheduled training exercises, unannounced readiness drills, or actual oil spills. An important part of the process is to keep these documents “evergreen” by updating them as needed.


Who will be involved in the EPA GRP project?
GRP Work Groups are being formed to participate in GRP development. These groups includes representatives of local government, the oil industry, spill response experts, natural resource trustees, stakeholder groups, and the public.


All Work Group meetings will be open to the public and meeting information will be published on the project website. 

Developed by Nuka Research & Planning Group LLC

Seldovia, AK * Plymouth, MA